HEAR HER ROAR: KATY PERRY EXPLAINED THROUGH THE POST-FEMINIST LENS

Pop artist, Katy Perry, received backlash for her statement “I’m not a feminist, but I do believe in the power of women,”[1] when accepting the 2012 Billboard “Woman of the Year” award. Much of the backlash could have been avoided if the artist instead stated, “I’m not a feminist, I partake in post-feminism.” With that statement, Perry would have declared appreciation for the equality feminism provided and given voice to those who do not feel post-feminism is more than a new way of presenting patriarchal norms, which diminishes feminist critique. Perry falls into the lines of post-feminism in several ways: she dresses in a hyper-feminized way, she makes choices out of self-interest, is a successful female, she writes lyrics about being a sexually assertive woman, and she writes lyrics about being an empowered woman whom cannot be held back by a man, even when heartbroken. To understand why these traits put Perry in the category of post-feminism, post-feminism in the neoliberal context must first be examined. Rosalind Gill’s text “Postfeminist Media Culture,” Angela McRobbie’s text “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract,” and Eva Chen’s text “Neoliberalism and popular women’s culture: Rethinking choice, freedom and agency” will be key sources in the explanation, along with Katy Perry quotes, song lyrics, music videos, and film.

1. POST-FEMINISM IN THE NEOLIBERAL CONTEXT

Postfeminist popular culture is linked with contemporary neoliberalism because post-feminism follows a template laid out by neoliberalism. This template is one based on the individual’s ability to choose, but only within a restricted and guided path. Eva Chen explains neoliberalism in the following statement:

Neoliberalism is not simply another form of direct disciplinary power exercised by the dominant discourse over passive female subjects. As a new form of self-governance, where the only guiding principle is marketization and self-interest, neoliberalism encourages individuals to willingly and freely choose to follow the path most conducive to their self-interest: the path which often turns out to be the normative one, the one for which the state has provided the best conditions. Neoliberalism does not operate directly on or coerce these choices in the way that traditional disciplinary power works – hence its seeming tolerance or openness – rather, it impacts on the conditions that make these choices desirable and voluntary (Read, 2009).[2]

 

What Chen is saying here is that neoliberalism does not exercise power over females in the former patriarchal way of direct discipline, but controls through discrete manipulation. Subjects of neoliberalism are encouraged to self-monitor and govern, but within the confines of self-serving. The path of self-serving and interest that one chooses to follow is often the normative path, or the path that one has been best conditioned to follow. The path is considered to be normative when it reflects an assumed norm that is regarded as the standard of correctness. In the discourse of post-feminism, the standard correctness of women is to choose to be an active subject of patriarchal ideals. If the neoliberal state wants to continuously reinforce gender differentiation through hyper-femininity, then hyper-femininity is the path the state invests in, it becomes the most appealing path, and results in women wanting to choose it. The adverts for fashion and beauty products present patriarchal ideals of beautiful, confident women using the product in question as “having it all.” This scenario subliminally tells female viewers that if they too owned that product they would also “have it all.” In purchasing these products out of a seemingly voluntary action because they desire it, and everything that is suggested to come with it, women are actually voluntarily acting as participants in the fashion-beauty complex. The fashion-beauty complex, which shall be examined further on, is a complex that promotes and perpetuates femininity within patriarchal ideals. The difference between femininity within the post-feminism construct and that of pre-feminism, is that women today, who are no longer space restricted, are choosing to be feminine without realizing they are doing so as a result of a neoliberal context, where before they were corseted and contorted as a means of keeping them in the home while the men (particularly white men) were free to all spaces.

Another difference between post- and pre-feminism is that women are now being judged on how they excel in the new freedoms they have been allotted as a result of achieving equality. What comes along with, and the consequences of, post-feminism is elaborated upon in McRobbie’s following quote:

The meanings which converge around the figure of the girl or young women, are more weighted towards capacity, success, attainment, enjoyment, entitlement, social mobility and participation. The dynamics of regulation and control are less about what young women ought not to do, and more about what they can do. The production of girlhood now comprises a constant stream of incitements and enticements to engage in a range of specified practices which are understood to be both progressive but also consummately and reassuringly feminine. What seems to underpin these practices is a suggestion that young women have now won the battle for equality, they have gained recognition as subjects worthy of governmental attention and this has replaced any need for the feminist critiques of what Mohanty labels hegemonic masculinities.[3]

 

With freedom come new responsibilities and achievements by which women are judged. No longer are women being regulated and restricted, but are being scrutinized over what they are suppose to do with their newfound freedom. No longer solely being judged on the status of being a feminine and good wife or mother, women are now also under the microscope as career women. And to be successful career woman, one must look the part in a feminine way. Women partake in progressive activities, but do so in a way that secures femininity in society. For example, if a woman working as a partner in a law firm is attending a partners’ meeting, she masks her dominance and assertion with high heels and lipstick. In presenting herself in a feminine manner, her male peers are less threatened and more receptive to her opinions. It is one thing for a woman to have agency in what use to be a “man’s world,” but it is another to take on all things masculine. Lacan’s concept of “the Symbolic as the source of patriarchal authority”[4] has been confronted and threatened by feminism. To assure and reinstate patriarchal authority and masculine law, the Symbolic discharges its duties to the fashion-beauty complex. With the fashion and beauty industries marketing the absolute need for women to look a certain feminine way, the Symbolic no longer has to assert itself as it use to.

From the fashion-beauty complex comes the post-feminist masquerade. The post-feminist masquerade “openly acknowledges and celebrated the fictive status of femininity while at the same time establishing new ways of enforcing sexual difference.”[5] In other words, women like being feminine. Yes, in the neoliberal context the choice to be feminine is a guided path and yes, it enforces sexual difference, but if doing so brings happiness and a sense of completion to women, what is the harm? Women are partaking in this post-feminism masquerade as free agents with status in the workplace. If a woman wants to crunch numbers while looking fabulous, that is her prerogative, her choice. A key post-feminist theme is a focus on individualism, choice and empowerment.[6] Along with winning equality and gaining governmental attention, women choosing to dress feminine silences the voices of feminists because there is no longer a strong case for feminists to fight for. They have mostly accomplished their primary goal for equality and freedom to choose, and with modern women voluntary participation in femininity while ignoring some feminists’ opinions that femininity is demeaning, feminism is seemingly moot.

2. KATY PERRY WITHIN POST-FEMINIST CONSTRUCTS

2a. Her femininity and the post-feminist masquerade

Katy Perry is someone who fully partakes in the post-feminist masquerade; she wears cupcake bras, bright colored wigs, extended eyelashes, and glittery costumes as part of her artist persona, (see Figure 1). All of these traits are hyper-feminine, but they do not take away from her success in the music industry, they enhance it. If one agrees with McRobbie’s claim that women partake in the post-feminist masquerade because she is “fearful of seriousness,”[7] it could be said that in dressing sexy and girly Perry is not a serious artist, but they would easily be shot down when presented with her abundant awards, record-breaking singles, and the profits she makes from branding herself alone. When writing and composing light-hearted songs like “California

source: http://www.instructables.com/id/Katy-Perry-Cupcake-Bra/

cute, feminine, and sexy = product of post feminism

Gurls,” and “Last Friday Night (T.G.I.F)” she does so (a) because they’re fun, and (b) because she knows they will be well received by her fans, which elevates her pop-stardom. She is not using her femininity to necessarily mask her desire for masculine power and to remain sexually desirable to men, she is using her femininity to promote herself. Beyond Perry being feminine to gain wider appeal, she does so because it is fun and makes her and her fans happy. Perry is aware of the affects her hyper-femininity has on her career, so she intentionally included clips of herself without makeup and in sweats in her documentary Katy Perry: Part of Me to show fans that perfection does not define success. Perry said:

There are a lot of things that are personally uncomfortable to show, especially me without makeup and completely bloated or crying. But I’ve realized that it’s time for me to show my audience that you don’t have to be perfect to achieve your dreams. Because nobody relates to being perfect.[1]

 

The importance of Katy Perry including and commenting on those clips in the documentary is that it shows fans that she is not a prisoner of the fashion-beauty complex and that revealing your natural self does not mean you lose status as an empowered female. If anything, it shows confidence in who she is, with or without cosmetics and fashionable clothes. One of the most inspirational scenes in the documentary portrays Perry backstage before a show in sweats, without makeup, and her hair in a wig cap while crying over her devastating split from British actor and comedian Russell Brand. What is inspirational is that she puts her heartache aside to perform for thousands of fans with a smile on her face. In sharing this moment Perry shows that she is not defined by a man in her life and that she is dedicated to her fans and career.[2]

Though Perry has stated that she prefers to be considered an inspiration rather than a role model to girls and young women, she is looked up to and girls do imitate her style, spreading the feminine joy that is Katy Perry. This widespread adoption of Katy Perry’s fun femininity overshadows those who make a stance against femininity. Perry also shows her female fans that you can be a sexy girly-girl and be successful, but, as seen in the Katy Perry: Part of Me, she is insistent that it took a lot of hard work to get to where she is today, and she continuously works hard for her career. With this she shows that having choice, individuality and empowerment only takes you so far, it is in how you utilize these properties and these freedoms of post-feminism that really matters.

2b. Katy Perry as a sexual subject

 

As previously mentioned, in being restricted, the path most conducive to one’s self-interest is often the normative path, for that is the path the state provides the best conditions.[3] Women within these confines end up choosing “the same normative heterosexual relationships and the same sexy, eroticized and fashionably adorned female bodily charm that has always been promoted by patriarchy and capitalism.”[4] When Katy Perry chose “I Kissed a Girl” for her debut single, she was acting within these confines. Knowing that girl-on-girl action is a fantasy for males, she promoted herself as a sexual subject (object) to gain popularity. Looking at why sex is a normative path and why it sells from a psychological perspective shows that sexual imagery “excites the areas of the brain that make us buy on impulse, bypassing the sections which control rational thought.”[5] Adverts (or in Katy Perry’s case, pop stars), using non-rational influence (NI) – feel-good, stimulating images sells better than those who use logical persuasion (LP).[6] Katy Perry may not know the logistics behind why sex sells, but she knows that it does, so she uses her body and sexual allure to her advantage. In the music video for “I Kissed a Girl,” Perry is participating in what seems to be a sexy slumber party. In a seductively lit room, surrounded by satin bedding and flowers the girls play lingerie dress-up, tend to their makeup, and engage in a friendly pillow-fight while half naked. If one were to take away Perry and the pop music, it would appear to be the set for a soft-core pornography video. What is important here is that Perry chose to write a song about kissing a girl and that she chose the theme for the music video; she did it, as the lyrics in the song imply, because she “liked it.” As Rosalind Gill states when citing Goldman:

Women are not straightforwardly objectified but are portrayed as active, desiring sexual subjects who choose to present themselves in a seemingly objectified manner because it suits their liberated interests to do so.[7]

 

In this sense, Perry not only used her sex appeal to market herself, she also did it to assert her liberated self. Even with the coming of the Sexual Revolution, some women still feel that being sexual is wrong, so they do not enjoy the same pleasures men do freely. When women, like Katy Perry, rightfully claim their sexuality and participate in sexual activities outside of marriage and the purpose for reproduction, they are equalizing the sexual relationship between men and women. If a woman is to be truly liberated from previous repressions enforced by religion and the patriarchal society, she should partake in sex on her own terms, because she likes it and wants to. This could be construed, as Gill suggests, that the “objectifying male gaze is internalized to form a new disciplinary regime. In this regime, power is not imposed from above or the outside, but constructs our very subjectivity.”[8] Once again the feminist perspective is pointing out that the liberties women now enjoy are simply women reconstructing patriarchal norms as their own choice. But with this reconstruction of the objectifying male gaze comes something wonderful, women can have sex without shame! In not being ashamed of their sexual bodies, women are also feeling more comfortable verbalizing what it is they exactly want, whether it be a request for cunnilingus from their partner or to be the one on the sexual prowl. Take Katy Perry’s song “Peacock” for example, she is literally demanding to see a man’s cock. The chorus goes:

 

Are you brave enough to let me see your peacock?

Don’t be a chicken boy, stop acting like a biatch

I’m a peace out if you don’t give me the pay off

Come on baby let me see

What you’re hidin’ underneath

Are you brave enough to let me see your peacock?

What you waiting for, it’s time for you to show it off

Don’t be a shy kinda guy I’ll bet it’s beautiful

Come on baby let me see

What you’re hidin’ underneath[9]

 

What Perry has done is turned the tables from the male gaze objectifying the woman to the female gaze objectifying the man. If it were not for the sexual confidence that post-feminism allows women, Perry may have never written a song just about seeing the penis of the male she desires. The message that women can be sexually assertive is then heard by female fans that then become inspired to also partake in sexual liberty. A downfall of women voluntarily engaging in sexual practice is that women may be exploited. In following the normative path that best enables agency they are constructing themselves “as a subject closely resembling the heterosexual male fantasy found in pornography.”[10] Once again the Katy Perry “I Kissed a Girl” music video is relevant, and it posses the question, is Perry exploiting her sexual body or celebrating it? Another downfall would be that it seems that only young, slim and beautiful women are constructed as “active, desiring sexual subjects.”[11] Gill states:

The body is presented simultaneously as women’s source of power and as always unruly, requiring constant monitoring, surveillance, discipline and remodeling (and consumer spending) in order to conform to ever-narrower judgments of female attractiveness.[12]

 

To be considered sexy requires a high degree of maintenance of one’s physical attributes. Women must self-monitor how they look and dress before their sexual escapade begins. Think of a young woman getting ready for a date with a man she intends on sleeping with that night, to prepare for the date she most likely conducts the following regime: shaving or waxing of the legs, bikini line, and armpits, applying enough makeup to even out her skin tone and accentuate her eyes, cheek bones, and lips, blow-out her hair, wear her sexy but not too sexy lingerie (which may have been purchased just for that date), pick out an outfit that is effortlessly a combination of cute and sexy, and wear high heels to accentuate her legs and buttocks. This is not to say that men do not engage in pre-date rituals as well, but their regime is probably not as extensive and demanding of as how women prepare. The woman’s pre-date regime listed above is part of the fashion-beauty complex that imposes the wants of the Symbolic. A question that could be asked is whether or not all of that is worth getting laid? If the woman likes dressing sexy and feminine and if she likes sex, than yes, it is worth it, if she does not like the regime then she can still enjoy her sexuality by staying home with a vibrator.

2c. Katy Perry’s independence

            Besides her fun feminine persona and her unapologetic sexiness, Katy Perry is also a product of post-feminism because she does not rely on her romantic relationships with men to define her. Though Chen, Gill and McRobbie do not directly discuss post-feminism within the context of romantic relationship’s successes and failures, they do discuss the importance of individualism. McRobbie explains that being independent from men and being self-reliant entails the following: “Self-monitoring, the setting up of personal plans and the search for individual solutions. These female individualization processes require that young women become important to themselves.”[13] As a successful pop artist andbusinesswoman, Perry has achieved the female individualization processes listed above. She monitors (with the help of stylists and a public relations team) how she is presented to the media, she is financially supported by her career, and can solve her own problems. A good example of this is when Perry first moved to Los Angelis to pursue a music career. No longer supported financially by her parents and in an unfamiliar urban atmosphere, Perry took it upon herself to survive and make it in the business. With these individualistic traits, Perry asserts herself as someone who can stand on her own two feet, someone who is capable of being whole with or without a man.

            Two notable Katy Perry hits express her post-break-up independence and strength. The singles “Part of Me” and “Wide Awake” debuted after her marriage to Russell Brand fell apart. These songs do not wallow in her sadness, but instead states in “Part of Me”:

Throw your stick and your stones,

Throw your bombs and your blows

But you’re not gonna break my soul

This is the part of me

That you’re never gonna ever take away from me, no[14]

 

And in “Wide Awake”:

 

I’m wide awake

Not losing any sleep

I picked up every piece

And landed on my feet

I’m wide awake

Need nothing to complete myself, no[15]

 

Both of these songs begin with Perry expressing that her heart was broken, that she felt as if she was falling, crashing, and drained, but the song’s tone quickly shifts to empowerment. Speaking from personal experience, these songs become mantras to fans experiencing break-up pain. In listening to lyrics like “need nothing to complete myself, no,”[16] someone obsessively crying because she is no longer with someone she loves can stop, collect herself and say, “he did not complete me, I complete me.” This sense of self-completion can be seen as a result of being a subject of post-feminism. McRobbie expands upon the power of one’s own choice when saying “and now that she is able to make her own choices, it seems as though the fearful terrain of male approval fades away.”[17] So for women who are assertive with their agency know that they need only to rely on themselves, opposed to pre-feminism when the man was the sole breadwinner and decision maker. Katy Perry does sing about the euphoria that comes from being in love, but is sure to state that love and that man are not her completion, she is.

 

2d. “Roar”: A new anthem for post-feminism?

            It is hard not to think of Helen Reddy’s 1972 song “I Am Woman (hear me roar)” when hearing Katy Perry belt out “you’re gonna hear me roar”[18] in her new single “Roar.” “I Am Woman” has been called the unofficial anthem for the Women’s Rights Movement during the 1970s,[19] so it seems fitting that “Roar” could be considered the unofficial anthem for post-feminism, not only both songs feature women roaring, but they both are intended evoke strength in women, but what really signifies “Roar” as a product of post-feminism is the music video.

            Playing off of the lyrics “I got the eye of the tiger,”[20] the music video is jungle, Tarzan-esque themed. The video starts post-airplane crash and Perry, completely clothed, follows her narcissistic boyfriend through the jungle with a dumb-founded expression on her face, she sings:           

I used to bite my tongue and hold my breath

Scared to rock the boat and make a mess

So I sat quietly, agreed politely

I guess that I forgot I had a choice

I let you push me past the breaking point

I stood for nothing, so I fell for everything[21]

 

This first verse sets the narrative of a woman who is without agency and dependent on a man, she exists within a pre-feminist relationship, one where she has no choice. As soon as she finishes singing the opening verse, a wild tiger mauls and kills the boyfriend, leaving Perry to fend for herself, catapulting her out of her pre-feminist relationship and into post-feminism. At a climactic, female empowering point in the song, Perry emerges from a cave wearing a leopard print bra, and a short skirt made up of leaves and flowers, (see Figure 2). The juxtaposition of the sexy Tarzan costume and the lyrics “I got the eye of the tiger, a fighter, dancing through the fire, ‘cause I am a champion and you’re gonna hear me roar,” speaks clearly to the postfeminist sensibility; she is both declaring her strength and dressed in a sexy, feminine attire. With this, Perry is taking back the power of choice she forgot she had, and seeing that “the notion that all our practices are freely chosen is central to postfeminist discourses,”[22] the song and video again

http://halloween-ideas.wonderhowto.com/how-to/make-katy-perry-roar-costume-for-halloween-0149018/

Legs open and fierce. Queen of the jungle and queen of her agency.

Figure 2: Katy Perry in music video “Roar,” Fall 2013

captures an essence of post-feminism. As a hit song and music video about being sexy, empowered and having the agency of choice, “Roar” can certainly be considered an anthem for post-feminism.

CONCLUSION

            Katy Perry was correct in her statement “I am not a feminist.”[23] As the above examination of Katy Perry shows, she belongs within the post-feminist discourse for multiple reasons: she exudes femininity happily and presumably by choice, she asserts herself as an empowered female through her sexual body, she is an individual responsible for herself, and she does not let her relationships with men define her, all of which seem to be represented in the song and music video “Roar.” The ‘choice,’ ‘freedom’ and ‘agency’ that Perry has are terms within a neoliberal context, meaning they are guided by a conditioned path for patriarchy, and they are not used to “advance the feminist cause.”[24] The ‘free’ woman is elaborated upon in the following statement made by Chen:

 

Popular women’s genres feature ‘free’ women who invariably end up making the same choice prescribed by normative culture, willingly desiring the same normative heterosexual relationships and the same sexy, eroticized and fashionably adorned female bodily charm that always has been promoted by patriarchy and capitalism.[25]

 

Katy Perry is one of those ‘free’ women Chen speaks of, even though Perry may not be aware that she portrays norms promoted by patriarchy and capitalism. Many women, including Perry, seem happy with the current neoliberal state of ‘freedom,’ ‘choice’ and ‘agency.’ Dressing feminine and partaking in sex for pleasure are not expressed as burdens, but as things that bring happiness and a sense of empowerment. This poses a final question/thought, if Perry, or any other woman within the post-feminist construct, were made aware of the fact that her/their freedoms, choices, and agency were products of neoliberal restrictions resulting in patriarchal norms, would she/they continue participating in the post-feminist masquerade or would they through their high heels and lipstick to the wind and say “screw that!”

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bibliography

Berlatsky, Noah. “Katy Perry’s Aversion to Feminism Shows Feminism is Still Radical.”

The Atlantic (December 5, 2012): accessed December 2, 2013. http://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2012/12/katy-perrys-aversion-to-feminism-shows-feminism-is-still-radical/265951/.

 

Chen, Eva. “Neoliberalism and popular women’s culture: Rethinking choice, freedom

and agency.” European Journal of Cultural Studies 16:440 (May 15, 2013): accessed December 2, 2013. http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/16/4/440.

 

Daily Mail Reporter. “Sex DOES sell… and here’s why: Attractive men and women in

adverts affect our capacity for rational thought.” Daily Mail (September 22, 2011): accessed December 5, 2013. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2040218/Sex-DOES-sell-Attractive-men-women-ads-affect-capacity-rational-thought.html.

 

Gill, Rosalind. “Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility.” European

Journal of Cultural Studies 10: 147 (2007): 147-166. Accessed October 14, 2013. http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.

 

Katy Perry: Part of Me. Directed by Dan Cutforth and Jane Lipsitz. 2012; USA:

Paramount Pictures, 2012. DVD.

 

McRobbie, Angela. “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract.” In

Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change, 54-93. London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Dehli; Singapore: Sage, 2009.

 

 

Perry, Katy. BrainyQuote.com. Xplore Inc.: 2013.

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/k/katy_perry.html, accessed December 7, 2013.

 

Perry, Katy. “Part of Me.” Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection. Capitol Records,

March 23, 2012, compact disc.

 

Perry, Katy. “Peacock.” Teenage Dream. Capitol Records, August 24, 2010, compact disc.

Perry, Katy. “Roar.” Prism. Capitol Records, October 18, 2013, compact disc.

 

Perry, Katy. “Wide Awake.” Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection. Capitol Records,

March 23, 2012, compact disc.

 

Songfacts. “I Am Woman by Helen Reddy.” http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=2226.

 

 

 

 

Secondary Sources

 

Figure 1:

The Heat. November 3, 2010. http://theheatnyc.blogspot.com/2010/11/faking-fall.html.

 

Figure 2:

Reveal.co.uk. “Katy Perry is fierce, fabulous, beautiful in jungle-themed Roar video.” September 6, 2013. http://www.reveal.co.uk/showbiz-celeb-gossip/news/a513128/katy-perry-is-fierce-fabulous-beautiful-in-jungle-themed-roar-video.html

[1] Katy Perry. BrainyQuote.com, Xplore Inc, 2013. http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/k/katy_perry.html, accessed December 7, 2013.

[2] Katy Perry: Part of Me, DVD, directed by Dan Cutforth and Jane Lipsitz (2012; USA, Paramount Pictures).

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] Daily Mail Reporter, “Sex DOES sell… and here’s why: Attractive men and women in adverts affect our capacity for rational thought,” Daily Mail (September 22, 2011): accessed December 5, 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2040218/Sex-DOES-sell-Attractive-men-women-ads-affect-capacity-rational-thought.html.

[6] Ibid.

[7] Rosalind Gill, “Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility,” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10: 147 (2007): 151, accessed October 14, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.

[8] Ibid, 152.

[9] Katy Perry, “Peacock,” Teenage Dream, August 24, 2010 by Capitol Records.

[10] Rosalind Gill, “Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility,” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10: 147 (2007): 152, accessed October 14, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid, 149.

[13] Angela McRobbie, “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract,” in Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change (London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Dehli; Singapore: Sage, 2009), 59-60.

 

[14] Katy Perry, “Part of Me,” Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection, March 23, 2012.

[15] Katy Perry, “Wide Awake,” Teenage Dream: The Complete Confection, March 23, 2012.

[16] Ibid.

[17] Angela McRobbie, “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract,” in Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change (London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Dehli; Singapore: Sage, 2009), 63.

 

[18] Katy Perry, “Roar,” Prism, October 18, 2013, by Capital Records.

[19] “I Am Woman” by Helen Reddy,” Songfacts, http://www.songfacts.com/detail.php?id=2226.

[20] Katy Perry, “Roar,” Prism, October 18, 2013, by Capital Records.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Rosalind Gill, “Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility,” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10: 147 (2007): 153, accessed October 14, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.

 

[23] Noah Berlatsky, “Katy Perry’s Aversion to Feminism Shows Feminism is Still Radical,” The Atlantic (December 5, 2012), accessed December 2, 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2012/12/katy-perrys-aversion-to-feminism-shows-feminism-is-still-radical/265951/.

 

[24] Eva Chen, “Neoliberalism and popular women’s culture: Rethinking choice, freedom and agency,” European Journal of Cultural Studies 16:440 (May 15, 2013): 440, accessed December 2, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/16/4/440.

[25] Ibid, 443.

[1] Noah Berlatsky, “Katy Perry’s Aversion to Feminism Shows Feminism is Still Radical,” The Atlantic (December 5, 2012), accessed December 2, 2013, http://www.theatlantic.com/sexes/archive/2012/12/katy-perrys-aversion-to-feminism-shows-feminism-is-still-radical/265951/.

[2] Eva Chen, “Neoliberalism and popular women’s culture: Rethinking choice, freedom and agency,” European Journal of Cultural Studies 16:440 (May 15, 2013): 443-4, accessed December 2, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/16/4/440.

[3] Angela McRobbie, “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract,” in Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change (London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Dehli; Singapore: Sage, 2009), 57.

[4] Ibid, 60.

[5] Ibid, 64.

[6] Rosalind Gill, “Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility,” European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10: 147 (2007): 149, accessed October 14, 2013, http://ecs.sagepub.com/content/10/2/147.

[7] Angela McRobbie, “Top girls? Young women and the new sexual contract,” in Aftermath of Feminism: Gender, Culture and Social Change (London; Thousand Oaks, CA; New Dehli; Singapore: Sage, 2009), 68.

 

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2 responses to “HEAR HER ROAR: KATY PERRY EXPLAINED THROUGH THE POST-FEMINIST LENS

  1. Hi! Thank you for sharing this so-academic-but-enjoyful paper as it discusess about pop culture in advance. I was entertained by the Roar music video and it took me reading your article. I expected that you would discuss focusing only on the video with certain issue e.g. Ecofeminism; yet you analyze her persona within post-feminism context. But, I enjoyed this article though. Keep writing and posting 🙂

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